Nanoemulsions versus lyotropic liquid crystals

Hema Chaudhary, Bijay Gautam, Vikash Kumar

Abstract


Nanoemulsions have gained great accolade in pharmaceutical and food industries, because of integer features, such as optical clarity, ease of preparation, thermodynamic stability, and increased surface area. They are isotropic, nonequilibrium, kinetically stable system of oil, defined blend of surfactant and co-surfactant and water, which serve as vehicles for the delivery of active pharmaceutical ingredients as well as other bio-actives. Both high and low-energy methods have already been exploited to design this system. This review clarify the recurrent confusions found in the literature regarding the difference between nanoemulsions and lyotropic liquid crystals, components, method of preparation, evaluation parameters, and stability issues, which have been described and also the significance of pseudo-ternary phase diagram has been addressed.

Full Text:

PDF

References


Chein YW. Novel drug delivery systems, 2nd ed., New York; Marcel

Dekker Inc.; 1992. p. 301-75.

Banker GS, Rhodes CT. Modern Pharmaceutics, 2nd ed., New York; Marcel

Dekker Inc., M.A.; 1990.

Yadav D, Suri S, Chaudhary AA, Beg MN, Garg V, Asif M et al. Stimuli

responsive polymeric nanoparticles in regulated drug delivery for

cancer. Pol J Chem Technol 2012;14:57-64.

Gevc G, Vieri U. Nanotechnology and the transdermal route: A state of

the art and critical appraisal. J Control Release 2010;141:277-99.

Robinson JR, Lee VH. Controlled Drug Delivery: Fundamentals and

Applications, 2nd ed., New York: Marcel Dekker Inc., M.A.; 1987. p - 524-6.

Solans C, Izquierdo P, Nolla J, Zemar NA, Garcia MJ. Nano-emulsions.

Curr Opin Colloid Interface Sci 2005;10:102-10.

Lovelyn C, Attana AA. Current State of Nanoemulsions in Drug Delivery.

J Biomater. Nanobiotech. 2011;2:626-39.

Meier W. Nanostructure synthesis using surfactants and copolymers.

Curr. Opin. Colloid. Interface Sci. 1999;4:6-14.

Hentze HP, Antonietti M. Template synthesis of porous organic

polymers. Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater Sci 2001;5:343-53.

Miller SA, Ding JH, Gin DL. Nano-structured materials based on

polymerizable amphiphiles. Curr Opin Colloid Interface Sci. 1999;4:338-47.

Mueller A, O’Brien DF. Template synthesis of porous organic polymers.

Chem Rev 2002;102:727–57.

Paul EJ, Prud’homme RK. In Reactions and synthesis in surfactant

systems. New York: Marcel Dekker, Surfactant Science Series; 2001.

p. 525-35.

Mason TG, Wilking JN, Meleson K, Chang CB, Grant SM. Nanoemulsions:

Formation, structure, and physical properties. J Phys Condens Matter

;18:R635-66.

Morgan JD, Kaler EW. Article size and monomer partitioning in microemulsion

polymerization. 1. Calculation of the particle size distribution.

Macromolecule 1998;31:3197-202.

Xu XJ, Siow KS, Wong MK, Gan LM. Micro-emulsion polymerization

of styrene using a polymerizable nonionic surfactant and a cationic

surfactant. Colloid Polymer Sci 2001;279:879-86.

Shah P, Bhalodia D, Shela PT. Nanoemulsion: A pharmaceutical review.

Syst Rev Pharm 2010;1:24-32.

Myers D. Surfaces, Interfaces and Colloids, 2nd ed., New York: Wiley;

Miller CA. Emulsions and Emulsion Stability. In: Sjoblom J, Raton B,

editors, Florida: Taylor and Francis; 2006. p. 107.

Hamidi M, Azadi A, Rafiei P. Hydrogel nanoparticles in drug delivery.

Adv Drug Deliv Rev 2008;60:1638-49.

Rfsler A, Vandermeulen GM, Klok HA. Advanced drug delivery devices

via self-assembly of amphiphilic block copolymers. Adv Drug Deliv Rev

;53:95-108.

Azeem A, Rizwan M, Ahmad FJ, Iqbal Z, Khar RK, Aqil M, et al.

Nanoemulsion Components Screening and Selection: A technical note

AAPS PharmSci Tech 2009;10:69-76.

Kotta S, Wadood A, Pramod K, Ansari SH, Sharma RK, Ali J. Exploring

oral nanoemulsions for bioavailability enhancement of poorly watersoluble

drugs. Expert Opin Drug Deliv 2012;9:585-98.

Lachman L, Lieberman HA, Kanig JL. The Theory and Practice of

Industrial Pharmacy, 3rd ed., Bombay: Varghese Publishing House; 1987.

Meleson K, Graves S, Mason TG. Formation of concentrated

nanoemulsions by extreme shear. Soft Mater 2004;2:109-23.

Graves S, Meleson K, Wilking J, Lin MY, Mason TG. Structure of

concentrated nanoemulsions J Chem Phys 2005;122:703-6.

Bartoli MH, Boitard M, Fessi H, Beriel H, De-vissaguet JP, Picot F, et al.

In vitro and in vivo anti-tumoral activity of free and encapsulated taxol.

J Microencapsul 1990;7:191-7.

Sonneville-Auburn O, Simonnet JT, L’Alloret F. Nanoemulsion:

A new vehicle for skincare product. Adv Colloid Interface Sci

;108-109:145-9.

Chowdary KP, Gupta ME. Topical Dosage Forms. The Eastern Pharmacist

p. 33.

Eccleston GM, Swarbrick J, Boylan JC. Encyclopedia Pharmaceuticals

Tech Vol. 5, New York, Marcel Dekker Inc, 1992. p. 137-88.

Fu QH, Friberg SE, Zhang ZQ, Aikens PA. Polymeric surfactants based

on oleic acid IV-Lamellar liquid crystal polymerization of sodium

oleate/oleic acid/aliphatic diene/water system. J Dispers Sci Technol

;21:1007-21.

Jain NK. Controlled and novel drug delivery system, 1st ed., New Delhi:

CBS Publications; 1997. p. 100-28.

Sharma N, Bansal M, Visht S, Sharma PK, Kulkarni GT. Nanoemulsion:

A new concept of delivery system. Chronic Young Scienti 2010;1:2-6.

Landfester K, Eisenblatter J, Rothe R. Preparation of polymerizable

mini-emulsions by ultra-sonication. J Coat Technol Res 2004;1:165-8.

Ludenberg BB. A submicron lipid emulsion coated with amphipathic

polyethylene glycol for parental administration of Paclitaxel (Taxol).

J Pharm Pharmacol 1997;49:16-21.

Tiwari S, Tan YM, Amiji M. Preparation and in vitro Characterization

of Multi-functional Nanoemulsions for Simultaneous MR Imaging and

Targeted Drug Delivery. J Biomed Nanotechnol 2006;2:217-24.

Mc-Clements, DJ. Food emulsions: Principles, practice, and techniques,

nd ed., Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press; 2005.

Morrow DIJ, Mc Caron PA, Woolfson AD, Doonley RF. Innovative

Strategies for Enhancing Topical and Transdermal Drug Delivery. Open

Drug Deliv J 2007;1:36-59.

Walstra P. Emulsion stability. Becher P, editor. Encyclopedia of Emulsion

Technology. New York: Marcel Dekker; 1996. p. 1-62.

Floury J, Desrumaux A, Axelos M. Effect of high pressure homogenization

on methylcellulose as food emulsifier. J Food Eng 2003;58:227-38.

Gutierrez JM, Gonalez CS, Mastero A, Sole J, Pey CM. Nano-emulsion:

New application and optimization of their preparation. Curr Opin

Colloid Interf Sci 2008;13:145-251.

Kendall G. What is pharmaceutical nanoemulsion? University

of Nottingham, Blogs, Malaysia Research and Knowledge

Transfer, Available from: (https://blogs.nottingham.ac.uk/

malaysiaknowledgetransfer/2013/06/25/what-is-pharma ceuticalnanoemulsion/)

[Last accessed on 2013 Jun 25].

Murdan S. Electro-responsive drug delivery from hydrogels. J. Control

Release 2003;92:1-17.

Tadros T, Izquierdo P, Esquena J, Solans C. Formation and stability of

nano-emulsions. Adv Colloid Interface Sci 2004;108-9:303-18.

Panagiotou T. Innovation through microfluidizer® processor

technology. Microfluidizer Process Techno., online presentation.

Avilable from: http://www. microfluidicscorp.com [Last accessed on

Oct].

Maestro A, Vsole I, Gonalez C, Solan C. Influence of the phase behavior

on the properties of ionic nano-emulsions prepared by the phase

inversion composition method J Colloid Interf Sci 2008;327:433-9.

Yang HJ, Cho WG, Park SN. Stability of oil-in-water nano-emulsions

prepared using the phase inversion composition method. J Ind Eng

Chem 2009;15:331-5.

Russel WB, Saville DA, Schowalter WR. Colloidal dispersions. Cambridge:

Cambridge University; 1989.

Bali V, Ali M, Ali J. Nano-carrier for the enhanced bioavailability of a

cardiovascular agent: In vitro, pharma-codynamic, pharmacokinetic and

stability. Int J Pharm 2011;403:46-56.

Shafiq S, Shakeel F, Talegoankar S, Ali J, Baboota S, Ahuja A, et al.

Formulation Development and Optimization Using Nano-emulsion

Technique: A Technical Note. AAPS PharmSci Technol 2007;8:E1-6.

Bouchemal K, Briancon S, Perrier E, Fessi H. Nano-emulsion formulation

using spontaneous emulsification: Solvent, oil and surfactant

optimization. Int J Pharm 2004;280:241-51.

Ganachaud F, Katz JL. Nanoparticles and nanocapsules created using

the Ouzo effect: Spontaneous emulisification as an alternative to

ultrasonic and high-shear devices. Chem Phys Chem 2005;6:209-16.

Vitale SA, Katz JL. Liquid droplet dispersions formed by homogeneous

liquid-liquid nucleation: The Ouzo effect. Langmuir 2003;19:4105-10.

Shafiq S, Shakeel F, Talegaonkar S, Ahmad FJ, Khar RK, Ali M. Design and

Development of Oral Oil in Water Ramipril Nanoemulsion Formulation:

In vitro and In vivo Assessment. J Biomed Nanotechnol 2007;3:28-44.

Yoshida R, Sakai Y, Okano T, Sakurai Y. J Biomater Sci Polymer

;6:585-98.

Touito E, Bary BW. Enhancement in Drug Delivery. New York: Taylor

and Francis; 1997.

Liu L, Li S, Simmons B, Singh M, John VT, McPherson GL, et al. Nanostructured

Materials Synthesis in a Mixed Surfactant Mesophase.

J Disper Sci Technol 2002;23:441-52

Forster S, Berton B, Hentze HP, Kramer E, Antonietti M, Lindner P.

Lyotropic Phase Morphologies of Amphiphilic Block Copolymers

Macromolecule 2001;34:4610-23.

Shakeel F. Criterion for excipients screening in the development of

nanoemulsion formulation of three anti-inflammatory drugs. Pharm

Dev Technol 2010;15:131-8.

Park TG, Hoffman AS. Synthesis and characterization of pH-and/or

temperature sensitive hydrogels. J Appl Polymer Sci 1992;46:659-71.

Lester CL, Guymon CA. Phase Behavior and Polymerization Kinetics

of a Semifluorinated Lyotropic Liquid Crystal. Macromolecule

;33:5448-54.

Taylor GI. The Formation of emulsions in definable fields of flow. Proc

R Soc 1934;146:501-23.

Taden A, Antonietti M, Heilig A, Landfester K. Inorganic Films from

Three Different Phosphors via a Liquid Coating Route from Inverse

Mini-emulsions. Chem Mater 2004;16:5081-7.

Deepak, Suri S, Sikender M, Garg V, Samim M. Entrapment of Seed

Extract of Nigella sativa into Thermosensitive (NIPAAm–Co–VP) Co-

Polymeric Micelles and its Antibacterial Activity. Int J Pharm Sci Drug

Res 2011;3:246-52.

Shafiq S, Shakeel F, Talegaonkar S, Ahmad FJ, Khar RK, Ali M.

Development and bioavailability assessment of ramipril nano-emulsion

formulation. Eur J Pharm Biopharm 2007;66:227-43.

Liu HY, Zhu XX. Lower critical solution temperatures of N-substituted

acrylamide co-polymers in aqueous solutions. Polymer 1999;40:6985-90.

Cannizzo C, Amigoni-Gerbier S, Larpent C. Boronic acid-functionalized

nanoparticles: Synthesis by micro-emulsion polymerization and

application as a re-usable optical nano-sensor for carbohydrates.

Macromolecule 2005;46:1269-76.

Xia H, Wang Q. Synthesis and characterization of conductive polyaniline

nanoparticles through ultrasonic assisted inverse microemulsion

polymerization. J Nanopart Res 2001;3:401-11.

Durian DJ, Weitz DA, Pine DJ. Multiple light-scattering probes of foam

structure and dynamics. Science 1991;252:686-88.

Burban JH, He MT, Cussler EL. Organic microporous materials made by

bicontinuous microemulsion polymerization, AIChE J 1995;41:907-14.

Gopal AD, Durian DJ. Relaxing in Foam. Phys Rev Lett 2003;91:188303.

Sharma A, Straubinger RM. Novel taxol formulations: Preparation and

characterization of taxol-containing liposomes. Pharm Res 1994;11:889-96.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22377/ajp.v8i1.321

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.