Design and evaluation of guar gum-based ofloxacin sustained release ocular insert

Main Article Content

Sunil Kumar
Roshan Issarani
BP Nagori
Munish Ahuja


To prepare ocular inserts of ofloxacin using guar gum as a polymer for sustained delivery over a period of 24 h.Ofloxacin ocular inserts were prepared by the solvent casting method using guar gum in different proportions (0.5%
w/v, 0.75% w/v and 1.0% w/v). The prepared formulations were evaluated for thickness, weight variation, percentage drug content, surface pH, folding endurance, percentage moisture absorption and loss, percentage swelling, mechanical strength and in vitro transcorneal permeation. In vitro transcorneal permeation study was performed on goat cornea using
a modified Franz diffusion cell. The inserts were found to be of uniform thickness (ranging from 51.230 ± 0.385 μm to 109.275 ± 0.522 μm) and weight (1.720 ± 0.079 mg to 3.402 ± 0.105 mg). The % drug content in the inserts was found
to vary between 95.450 ± 0.427% and 98.471 ± 0.225.The cumulative % drug releases from the formulation ranged from 38.19 to 75.21 over a period of 24 h. All the formulations followed a zero order release pattern. The in vitro transcorneal study revealed that an increase in concentration of the polymer slowed down the release of ofloxacin from the formulation.Ocular inserts using guar gum as a polymer were successfully prepared and can be effectively used for sustained ocular delivery over a period of 24 h.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
Kumar, S., Issarani, R., Nagori, B., & Ahuja, M. (2014). Design and evaluation of guar gum-based ofloxacin sustained release ocular insert. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutics (AJP), 6(3).


Chowhan M, Weiner AL, Bhagat H. Drug delivery-ophthalmic route.

Encyclopedia of pharmaceutical technology. New York: Marcel Dekkar,

Inc.; 2005. p. 863-70.

Yusuf A, Kari L. Industrial perspective in ocular drug delivery. Adv Drug

Del Rev 2006;58:1258-68.

Olejinik O. Conventional system in ophthalmic drug delivery.

Ophthalmic drug delivery system. New York: Marcel Dekkar, Inc.; 1993.

p. 177-98.

El Gamal SS, Naggar VF, Allam AN. Formulation and evaluation of

acyclovir ophthalmic inserts. Asian J Pharm Sci 2008;3:58-67.

Ozawa H, Hosaka S, Kunitoma T, Tanzawa H. Ocular inserts for controlled release of antibiotics. Biomaterials 1983;4:170-4.

Danna LR, Riley CM. Aqueous solubilities of some variously substituted

quinolone antimicrobials. Int J Pharm 1990;63:237-50.

Malhotra RM. Polymeric system for ocular inserts. Available from: [Last accessed on 2011 Mar 16].

Dure NI, Erum AH. Physiological and pharmaceutical properties of guar

gum derivatives. Rep Opin 2010;2:77-83.

Nakano M, Ogata A. Examination of natural gums as matrices for

sustained release of theophylline. Chem Pharm Bull 1984;32:782-5.

Khullar P, Khar RK, Agarwal SP. Evaluation of guar gum in the release of sustained release matrix tablets. Drug Dev Ind Pharm 1998;24:1095-9.

Bhardwaj TR, Kanwar M, Lal R, Gupta A. Natural gums and modified

natural gums as sustained release carriers. Drug Dev Ind Pharm


Guo JH, Skinner GW, Harcum WW, Barnum PE. Pharmaceutical applications of naturally occurring water soluble polymers. PSTT 1998;1:254-61.

Rowe RC, Sheskey PJ, Owen SnC. Handbook of Pharmaceutical

excipients. United Kingdom: Pharmaceutical Press; 2006. p. 315-7.

Matheson A. Your patient has dry eye-what treatments are available.

Education. Available from: [Last

accessed on 2011 June 12].

Asgharian B. Ophthalmic composition containing galactomannan

polymers and borate. United States Patent. US 2007/0098677 A1 dated

May 3, 2007

Rathore KS, Nema RK, Sisodia SS. Preparation and characterization of

timolol maleate ocular films. Int J PharmTech Res 2010;2:1995-2000.

Tanwar YS, Patel D, Sisodia SS. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of ocular inserts of ofloxacin. DARU 2007;15:139-45.

Karthikeyan D, Bhowmick M, Pandey VP, Sengottuvelu S, Sonkar S,

Gupta N, et al. Design and evaluation of ofloxacin extended release

ocular inserts for once a day therapy. Res J Pharm Tech 2008;1:460-8.

Kerur S, Dandagi P, Deshpande P. Controlled release polymeric ocular

inserts for delivery of acyclovir. Turk J Pharm Sci 2010;7:75-90.

Gorle AP, Gattani SG. Design and evaluation of polymeric ocular drug delivery system. Chem Pharm Bull 2009;57:914-9.

Gupta A, Sharma SK, Ahuja M. In vitro and in vivo evaluation ofg based ocular inserts of phenylephrine. Acta Pharm Sci 2007;49:55-63.

Mishra DN, Gilhotra RM. Design and characterization of bioadhesive in-situ gelling ocular inserts of gatifloxacin sesquihydrate. DARU 2008;16:1-8.

Kumar A, Mittal A, Kumar S, Singh A, Gupta A. Effect of gelrite

concentration on the release through ocular inserts of ciprofloxacin

hydrochloride. J Pharm Res 2009;2:487-90.

Constant Humidity solution. British Pharmaceutical Codex. Great

Britain: Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain; 1963; 696.

Hornof M, Weyenberg W, Ludwig A, Schnurch AB. Mucoadhesive ocular inert based on thiolated poly(acrylic acid): develoment and in vivo

evaluation in humans. J Control Release 2003;89:419-28.

Dandagi PM, Manvi FV, Patil MB, Mastiholimath VS, Rathod R. Development and evaluation of ocular films of cromolyn sodium. Indian J Pharm Sci 2004;66:309-12.

Thakral S, Ahuja M. Effect of formulation factors on in vitro corneal

permeation of fluconazole through excised sheep cornea. Afr J Pharm

Sci Pharm 2011;2:91-103.

Rao MP, Nappinnai M, Raju S, Rao VU, Reddy BV. Fluconazole

ocular inserts: Formulation and in vitro evaluation. J Pharm Sci Res