Development of non-effervescent floating matrix tablets based on Euryale ferox seeds

Jeetendra Singh Negi, Vandana Jugran, Nikhil Kasliwal


Euryale ferox (family Nymphaeaceae), a plant belonging to the water lily family, grows in water ponds and remains buoyant on water surface. Similarly, its edible seeds also remain afloat in a wide variety of liquid mediums. Thus, the purpose
of this study was to develop non-effervescent floating matrix tablets using E. ferox seeds powder (EFSP). Different matrix tablets were prepared using hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) K4M, ciprofloxacin HCl and EFSP. The effects of
various formulation variables were investigated on in vitro drug release and in vitro floating behavior of the matrix tablets. With increase in EFSP proportion in the matrix tablets, improvement in buoyancy was observed. The floating behavior of tablets was also found to be dependent on particle size of EFSP. Further, surface morphology of different particle sizes of EFSP was studied with Scanning Electron Microscope images. Drug release from matrix tablets was reduced in the presence of EFSP particles. Most of the formulations were best fitted with Korsmeyer–Peppas and zero-order release kinetics. The value of n was found to be between 0.45 and 0.89, which indicates non-fickian drug transport. Thus, non-effervescent floating behavior can be successfully achieved by using EFSP in HPMC K4M based matrix tablets.

Full Text:



Deshpande AA, Shah NH, Rhodes CT, Malick W. Development of a

novel controlled-release system for gastric retention. Pharm Res


Talukder R, Fassihi R. Gastroretentive Delivery Systems: A Mini Review.

Drug Dev Ind Pharm 2004:30;1019-28.

Arora S, Javed A, Ahuja A, Khar RK, Baboota S. Floating drug delivery

system: A review. AAPS PharmSciTech 2005:6;E372-90.

Streubel A, Siepmann J, Bodmeier R. Drug delivery to the upper

small intestine window usinggastroretentive technologies. Curr Opin

Pharmacol 2006:6;501-8.

Rahman Z, Ali M, Khar RK. Design and evaluation of bilayer floating

tablets of captopril. Acta Pharm 2006:56;49-57.

Srivastava AK, Wadhwa S, Ridhurkar D, Mishra B. Oral sustained

delivery of atenolol from floating matrix tablets-formulation and in vitro

evaluation. Drug Dev Ind Pharm 2005;31:367-74.

Jiménez-Martínez I, Quirino-Barreda T, Villafuerte-Robles L. Sustained

delivery of captopril from floating matrix tablets. Int J Pharm


Ichikawa M, Watanabe S, Miyake Y. A new multiple unit oral floating

dosage system. I: Prepration and in vitro evaluation of floating and

sustained-release characteristics. J Pharm Sci 1991;80:1062-6.

Badve SS, Sher P, Korde A, Pawar AP. Development of hollow/porous

calcium pectinate beads for floating-pulsatile drug delivery. Eur J Pharm

Biopharm 2007:65;85-93.

Sriamornsak P, Sungthongjeen S, Puttipipatkhachorn S. Use of pectin as a carrier for intragastric floating drug delivery: Carbonate salt contained

beads. Carbohydr Polym 2007:67;436-45.

Rajinikanth PS, Balasubramaniam J, Mishra B. Development and

evaluation of a novel floating in situ gelling system of amoxicillin for

eradication of Helicobacter pylori. Int J Pharm 2007;335:114-22.

Strusi OL, Sonvico F, Bettini R, Santi P, Colombo G, Barata P, et al. Module assemblage technology for floating systems: In vitro flotation and in vivo gastro-retention. J Control Release 2008;129:88-92.

Gutiérrez-Sánchez PE, Hernández-León A, Villafuerte-Robles L. Effect

of sodium bicarbonate on the properties of metronidazole floating

matrix tablets. Drug Dev Ind Pharm 2008;34;171-80.

Russell TL, Berardi RR, Barnett JL, Dermentzoglou LC, Jarvenpaa KM,

Schmaltz SP, et al. Upper gastrointestinal pH inseventy-nine healthy,

elderly, North American men and women. Pharm Res 1993;10:187-96.

Chavanpatil M, Jain P, Chaudhari S, Shear R, Vavia P. Development of

sustained release gastroretentive drug delivery system for ofloxacin:

In-vitro and in-vivo evaluation. Int J Pharm 2005:304;178-84.

Sauzet C, Claeys-Brunob M, Nicolasc M, Kister J, Piccerelle P, Prinderrea P. An innovative floating gastro retentive dosage system: Formulation and in vitro evaluation. Int J Pharm 2009;378:23-9.

Streubel A, Siepmann J, Bodmeier R. Floating matrix tablets based

on low density foam powder: Effects of formulation and processing

parameters on drug release. Eur J Pharm Sci 2003;18:37-45.

McGuffin, M, Hobbs, C, Upton, R. American products association’s

botanical safety handbook. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press; 1997. p. 51.

Nath BK, Chakraborty AK. Studies on the physicochemical properties

of starch of Eurylae ferox. Starch 1985:37;361-3.

Lee SE, Ju EM, Kim JH. Antioxidant activity of extracts from Euryale

ferox seed. Exp Mol Med 2002;34:100-6.

Das S, Der P, Raychaudhuri U, Maulik N, Das DK. The effect of Euryale

ferox (makhana), an herb of aquatic origin, on myocardial ischemic

reperfusion injury. Mol Cell Biochem 2006;289:55-63.

Tadros MI. Controlled-release effervescent floating matrix tablets of

ciprofloxacin hydrochloride: Development, optimization and in vitro–in

vivo evaluation in healthy human volunteers. Eur J Pharm Biopharm


Arza RA, Gonugunta CS, Veerareddy PR. Formulation and evaluation

of swellable and floating gastroretentive ciprofloxacin hydrochloride

tablets. AAPS PharmSciTech 2009;10:1220-6.

Korsmeyer RW, Gurny R, Doelker E, Buri P, Peppas NA. Mechanisms

of solute release from porous hydrophilic polymers. Int J Pharm


Costa P, Sousa Lobo JM. Modeling and comparison of dissolution

profiles. Eur J Pharm Sci 2001;13:123-33.

Strübing S, Metz H, Mäder K. Characterization of poly (vinyl acetate)

based floating matrix tablets. J Control Release 2008;126:149-55.

Colombo P, Bettini R, Santi P, De Ascentiis A, Peppas NA. Analysis of

the swelling and release mechanisms from drug delivery systems with

emphasison drug solubility and water transport. J Control Release


Viridéna A, Wittgrenb B, Larsson A. Investigation of critical polymer

properties for polymer release and swelling of HPMC matrix tablets.

Eur J Pharm Sci 2009;36:297-309.

Peppas NA, A.R. Khare AR. Preparation, structure and diffusional

behavior of hydrogel in controlled release. Adv Drug Deliv Rev


Abdelbary GA, Tadros MI. Design and in vitro/in vivo evaluation of

novel nicorandil extended release matrix tablets based on hydrophilic

interpolymer complexes and a hydrophobic waxy polymer. Eur J Pharm

Biopharm 2008;69:1019-28.

Escudero JJ, Ferrero C, Jiménez-Castellanos MR. Compaction properties,

drug release kinetics and fronts movement studies from matrices

combining mixtures of swellable and inert polymers: Effect of HPMC

of different viscosity grades. Int J Pharm 2008;351:61-73.

Tajiri T, Morita S, Sakamoto R, Suzuki M, Yamanashi S, Ozaki Y, et al.

Release mechanisms of acetaminophen from polyethylene oxide/

polyethylene glycol matrix tablets utilizing magnetic resonance

imaging. Int J Pharm 2010;395:147-53.

Colombo P, Bettini R, Massimo G, Catellani PL, Santi P, Peppas NA. Drug

diffusion front movement is important in drug release control from

swellable matrix tablets. J Pharm Sci 1995;84:991-7.

Bettini R, Colombo P, Massimo G, Catellani PL, Vitali T. Swelling and

drug release in hydrogel matrices: Polymer viscosity and matrix porosity

effects. Eur J Pharm Sci 1994;2:213-9.

Colombo, P, Santi, P, Bettini, R, Brazel, CS, Peppas, NA. Drug release

from swelling-controlled systems. In: Wise DL, editors. Handbook of

pharmaceutical controlled release technology. New York: Marcel Dekker

Inc.; 2000. p. 190.

Ritger PL, Peppas NA. A simple equation for description of solute

release. I. Fickian and non-Fickian release from non-swellable devices

in the form of slabs, spheres, cylinders or discs. J Control Release


Ritger PL, Peppas NA. A simple equation for description of solute

release. II. Fickian and anomalous release from swellable devices. J

Control Release 1987;5:37-42.

Baveja SK, Rao KVR, Devi KP. Zero-order release hydrophylic matrix

tablets of -adrenergic blockers. Int J Pharm 1987;39:39-45.

Kim H, Fasshi R. Application of a binary polymer system in drug release

rate modulation. 1. Characterisation of release mechanism. J Pharm

Sci 1997:86:316-22.

Kim H, Fasshi R. Application of a binary polymer system in drug release

rate modulation. 2. Influence of formulation variables and hydrodynamic

conditions on release kinetics. J Pharm Sci 1997:86:323-8.

Lee PI. Diffusional release of a solute from a polymeric matrix-

approximate analytical solutions. J Memb Sci 1980;7:255-75.

Harland RS, Gazzaniga A, Sangalli ME, Colombo P, Peppas NA. Drug/

polymer matrix swelling and dissolution. Pharm Res 1988;5:488-94.



  • There are currently no refbacks.