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Air pollution, a significant environmental risk factor, is regarded to be the root cause of certain ailments, including
asthma, lung cancer, and ventricular hypertrophy. According to the World Health Organization, some of the major
air pollutants include lead, carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur oxides, CO at ground level, and particle pollution. Both
short-term and long-term exposure to polluted air can have a number of toxicological consequences on the human
body, including respiratory and cardiovascular problems, neuropsychiatric issues, eye irritation, skin conditions,
and chronic illnesses like cancer. Different advanced analytical techniques such as gas chromatography-mass
spectrometry, infrared radiation absorption, and laser, where laser radiation is sent through a sample of atmosphere
to be investigated either as transmission, or the scattering of the light all the way through a different physical
process, produce a variety of different techniques for monitoring air quality. This article has detailed the primary
air pollutants, their sources of emission, their effects on human health, and the methods used to detect them to
discover solutions to minimize them.
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