Main Article Content
ionotropic gelation method using calcium chloride (CaCl2) as a crossâ€linking agent. The microcapsules were evaluated for physical characteristics such as particle size, particle shape and surface morphology by scanning electron microscopy, drug entrapment efficiency, in vitro drug release and in vitro bioadhesion studies. Results of preliminary trials indicated that the
polymer concentration, crossâ€linking agent and chitosan had a noticeable effect on size and surface morphology. A Boxâ€Behnken design was employed to study the effect of independent variables, polymer concentration (X1), CaCl2 concentration (X2), chitosan (X3) and pH of encapsulation medium (X4) on dependent variables, drug entrapment efficiency and percentage drug
release respectively.The entrapment efficiency varied from 6.14 to 79.21% depending upon the independent variables.The release can be sustained for more than 7 hours for all batches. It was observed that polymer and crossâ€linker concentration had a more significant effect on the dependent variables.Validation of optimization study, performed using 6 confirmatory runs, indicated very high degree of prognostic ability of response surface methodology, with mean percentage error (Â± SD) as â€0.85 Â± 4.39% and 2.83 Â± 2.91% for drug entrapment and drug release. Optimization was done on the basis of maximum
entrapment (82.26%) which was predicted using 6% alginate, 8.11% CaCl2, 2% chitosan at a pH of 3.55 of encapsulation medium.The optimized formulation depicted a release of 57.17% at 7 hours. Point prediction tool of design expert software shows 101.91% and 96.82% validity of the predicted model for drug entrapment and percent drug release. The release follow Higuchi kinetics followed by nonâ€fickian diffusion process. In vitro wash off test showed 71% bioadhesion after 1 hour.
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Attribution-Noncommercial 4.0 International License [CC BY-NC 4.0], which requires that reusers give credit to the creator. It allows reusers to distribute, remix, adapt, and build upon the material in any medium or format, for noncommercial purposes only.
Shaffer EA. Morphine and biliary pain revisited. Gut 2000;46:750â€1.
Rath SK Sarangi RR, Panda SK, Dash AK, Rath S, Nayak S.
Uvâ€Spectrophotometric method for simultaneous estimation
Of drotaverine hydrochloride and aceclofenac In bulk and their
formulation. Int J Biol Pharm Res 2011;2:55â€9.
Craig A, Toouli J. Sphincter of oddi dysfunction: Is there a role for
medical therapy? Curr Gastroenterol Rep 2002;4:172â€6.
Griffiths AJ, Kennedy JF. Biotechnology of polysaccharides. In: Carbohydrates
chemistry. Kennedy JF, editor. New York, NY: Oxford University Press; 1988.
Higgs PG, Bael RC. A Reelâ€chain model for the elasticity of bipolymer
gels, and its relationship to slipâ€link treatment of entanglements, in
physical networks, Polymers and Gels. In: Burchard W, Ross SB, Murphy,
editors. New York, NY: Elsevier; 1990. p. 185â€94.
Clarks AH, Rossâ€Murphy SB. Structural and mechanical properties of
biopolymer gels. Adv Polym Sci 1987;83:57â€192.
Ouwerx C, Velings CN, Mestdagh MM, Axelos MA. Physicochemical
properties and rheology of alginate gel beads formed with various
divalent cations. Polymer Gels Net 1998;6:393â€408.
Bajpai SK, Sharma S. Investigation of swelling/degradation behavior of
alginate beads cross linked with Ca2+ and Ba2+ ions. Reactive Functional
Silva CM, Ribeiro AJ, Figueiredo M, Ferreira D, Veiga F. Microencapsulation
of Hemoglobin in Chitosanâ€coated Alginate Microspheres Prepared by
Emulsification/Internal Gelation. AAPS J 2006;7:E903â€13.
Gombotz WR, Wee S. Protein Release from Alginate Matrices. Adv Drug
Deliv Rev 1998;31:267â€85.
Patil VB, Pokharkar VB. Preparation and evaluation of sustained release
nimesulide microspheres prepared from sodium alginate. Ind J Pharm
Bodmeier R, Paeratakul O. Spherical agglomerates of waterâ€insoluble
drugs. J Pharm Sci 1989;78:964â€7.
Murata Y, Maeda T, Miyamoto E, Kawashima S. Preparation of
chitosanâ€reinforced alginate gel beadsâ€effects of chitosan on gel matrix
erosion. Int J Pharm 1993;96:139â€45.
Polk A, Amsden B, Yao KD, Peng T, Goosen MF. Controlled release
of Albumin from chitosanâ€alginate microcapsules. J Pharm Sci
Takahashi T, Takayama K, Machida Y, Nagai T. Characteristics of polyion
complexes of chitosan with sodium alginate and sodium polyacrylate.
Int J Pharm 1990;61:35â€41.
Sezer AD, Akbuga J. Release characteristics of chitosan treated alginate
beads: Sustained release of a macromolecular drug from chitosan
treated alginate beads. J Microencapsul 1999;16:195â€203.
Hari PR, Candy T, Sharma CP. Chitosan/calciumâ€alginate beads for oral
delivery of insulin. J Appl Polymer Sci 1996;59:1795â€801.
Polk AE, Scarratt AD, Gonzal A, Okhamafe AO, Goosen. Oral delivery
in aquaculture: Controlled release of proteins from chitosanâ€alginate
microcapsules. Aquaculture Eng 1994;13:311â€23.
Anal AK, Stevens WF. Chtiosanâ€Alginate multiplayer beads for controlled
release of ampicillin. Int J Pharm 2005;290:45â€54.
Patel JK, Bodar MS, Amin AF, Patel MM. Formulation and optimization
of mucoadhesive microspheres of metoclopramide. Ind J Pharm Sci
Chaudary KR, Rao YS. Preparation and evaluation of mucoadhesive
microcapsules of Indomethacin. Ind J Pharm Sci 2003;65:49â€52.
Sriamornsak P, Kennedy RA. A novel gel formation method,
microstructure and mechanical properties of calcium polysaccharide
gel films. Int J Pharm 2006;323:72â€80.
Sriamornsak P, Nunthanid J. Calcium pectinate gel beads for controlled
release drug delivery: I. Preparation and invitro release studies. Int J
Sriamornsak P, Nunthanid J. Calcium pectinate gel beads for controlled
release drug delivery: II. Efect of formulation and processing variables
on drug release. J Microencapsul 1998;16:303â€13.
Peniche C, Howland I, Carrillo O, Zaldivar C, Arguellesâ€Monal W.
Formation and stability of shark liver oil loaded chitosan/calcium
algiante capsules. Food Hydrocolloid 2004;18:865â€71.
Gupta KC, Jabrail FH. Glutaraldehyde crossâ€linked chitosan
microspheres for controlled release of centchroman, Carbohydr Res
Dakhara SL, Anajwala CC. Polyelectrolyte complex: A pharmaceutical
review. Syst Rev Pharm 2010;1:121â€7.
Rajinikanth PS, Sankar C, Mishra B. Sodium alginate microspheres of
metoprololtartarate for intranasal systemic delivery: Development and
evaluation. Drug Deliv 2003;10:21â€8.
Takka S, AcartÃ¼rk F. Calcium alginate microparticles for oral
administration: I. Effect of sodium alginate type on drug release and
drug entrapment efficiency. J Microencapsul 1999;16:275â€90.
Mirghani A, Idkaidek NM, Salem MS, Najib NM. Formulation and
release behavior of diclofenac sodium in compritol 888 matrix beads
encapsulated in alginate. Drug DevInd Pharm 2000;26:791â€5.
Ostberg T, Lund ME, Graffner C. Calcium alginate matricesfor oral
multiple unit administration: IV. Release characteristics in different
media. Int J Pharm 1994;112:241â€8.
Bayomi MA. Aqueous preparation and evaluation of albuminâ€chitosan
microspheres containing Indomethacin. Drug DevInd Pharm
Sriamornsak P, Burapapadh K, Puttipipatkhacehorn S, Nunthanid J.
Effect of acidic medium on swelling and release behaviors of
Chitosanâ€Reinforced calcium pectinate gel beads. Silpakorn U Sci
Technol J 2008;2:37â€44.
Pasparakis G, Bouropolous N. Swelling studies and in vitro release of
verapamil from calcium alginate and calcium alginateâ€chitosan beads.
Int J Pharm 2006;323:34â€42.