Main Article Content
homogenization technique.They were characterized by thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), solubility, and in vitro drug release studies. The absence of atorvastatin peaks in PXRD profiles of nanosuspensions suggests the transformation of crystalline drug into an amorphous form.TGA examination suggested that the drug was converted into anhydrous form from the original trihydrate form. DSC curves also compliment the result obtained by TGA and PXRD. The effect of particle size was found to be significant on the saturation solubility of the drug.The in vitro drug release studies showed a significant increase in the dissolution rate of nanosuspensions as compared with pure drug. This study has shown that initial crystalline state is reduced following particle size reduction and that the
dissolution characteristics of atorvastatin nanosuspensions were significantly increased in regards to the pure drug.The method
being simple and easily scaled up, this approach should have a general applicability to many poorly water-soluble drug entities.
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Attribution-Noncommercial 4.0 International License [CC BY-NC 4.0], which requires that reusers give credit to the creator. It allows reusers to distribute, remix, adapt, and build upon the material in any medium or format, for noncommercial purposes only.
The Bio pharmaceutics Classification System (BCS) Guidance, Office of
Pharmaceutical Science. Available from: http://www.fda.gov/cder/OPS/
BCS_guidance.htm. [last accessed on 2008 Jan 12].
Clewlow PJ. Survival of the smartest: Scripâ€™s target world drug delivery
news. Informa Healthcare, UK 2004;35:316-23.
Seedher N, Kaur J. Solubilization of nimesulide: Use of co-solvents.
Indian J Pharm Sci 2003;65:58-61.
Mersiko-Liversidge E, MGurk SL, Liversidge GG. Insulin nanoparticles:
A novel formulation approach for poorly water soluble Zn-Insulin.
Pharm Res 2004;21:1545-53.
Benjamin C, Lu Y, Zang D, Sheng W. Solubility enhancement in
supercritical fluids. Pure Appl Chem 1990;62:2277-85.
Paradkar A, Ambike A, Jadhav B, Mahadik K. Characterization of
curcumin-PVP solid dispersion obtained by spray drying. Int J Pharm
Anzai K, Mizoguchi J, Yanagi T, Hirayama F, Arima H, Uekama K.
Improvement of dissolution properties of a new Helicobacter pylori
eradicating agent (TG44) by inclusion complexation with beta-
cyclodextrin. Chem Pharm Bull 2007;55:1466-70.
Sucker H. Hydrosole, eine Alternative fÃ¼r die parenterale Anwendung
von schwer wasserlÃ¶slichen Wirkstoffen. In: Muller RH, Hildebrand
GE, editors. Pharmazeutische Technologie; Modern Arzneiformen. 2nd
ed. Stuttgart: WVG; 1998.
Lennernas H. Clinical pharmacokinetics of atorvastatin. Clin
Corsini A, Bellosta S, Baetta R, Fumagalli R, Paoletti R, Bernini F. New
insights into the pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic propserties
of statins. Pharmacol Ther 1999;84:413-28.
Hecq J, Deleers M, Fanara D, Vrandex H, Amighi K. Preparation and
characterization of nanocrystals for solubility and dissolution rate
enhancement of nifedipine. Int J Pharm 2005;299:167-77.
Gohel MC, Patel LD. Processing of Nimesulide-PEG 400-PEG-PVP solid
dispersions: Preparation, characterization and in vitro dissolution. Drug
Dev Ind Pharm 2003;29:299-310.
Sunil KB, Michael AR, Soumyajit M, Rao Y. Formulation and evaluation
of rapidly disintegrating Fenoverine tablets: Effect of superdisintegrant.
Drug Dev Ind Pharm 2007;33:1225-32.
Mehdi A, Maryam K, Monireh A. The study of drug permeation through
natural membrane. Int J Pharm 2006;327:6-11.
Giovanna C, Francesca M, Marzia C, Sandra F, Paola M. Development
and evaluation of an in vitro method for prediction of human drug
absorption 1: Assessment of artificial membrane composition. Eur J
Pharm Sci 2006;27:346-53.
Kim MS, Jin SJ, Kim JS, Park HJ, Song HS, Neubertb RH, et al. Preparation,
characterization and in vivo evaluation of amorphous atorvastatin
calcium nanoparticles using supercritical antisolvent (SAS) process.
Eur J Pharm Biopharm 2008;69:454-65.
Kocbek P, Baumgartner S, Kristi J. Preparation and evaluation of
nanosuspensions for enhancing dissolution of poorly soluble drugs.
Int J Pharm 2006;312:179-86.
Yuichi T, Atsutoshi I, Hiiroko S, Toshio O, Keiji Y. Characterization
and quantitation of Clarithromycin polymorphs by powder X-Ray
diffractometry and solid state NMR spectroscopy. Chem Pharm Bull
Jacobs C, Muller RH. Production and characterization of budenoside
nanosuspensions for pulmonary administration. Pharm Res
Kim JS, Kim MS, Park HJ, Jin SJ, Sibeum L, Hwang SJ. Physiochemical
properties and oral bioavailability of amorphous atrovastatin hemi-
calcium using spray-drying and SAS process. Int J Pharm 2008;