Main Article Content
systems are developed with a purpose to overcome problems coupled with the drugs such a poor bioavailability, protection from harsh gastric environment, and from gastric enzymes, which degrade the drug.Vesicular drug delivery systems such as liposomes, emulsions, niosomes, proniosomes, solid lipid-nano particles, ethosomes, nanoparticles, and pharmacosomes, etc have gained much attention, but emulsomes have rouse as system, which bypasses many disadvantages associated with other systems, developed as novel lipoidal vesicular system with internal solid fat core surrounded by phospholipid bilayer. This technology is designed to act as vehicle for poorly soluble drugs.The drug is enclosed in the emulsomes and provide prolong existence of drug in systemic circulation. Furthermore, emulsomal-based formulations of genetic drugs such as antisense
oligonucleotides and plasmids for gene therapy that have clear potential for systemic utility are increasingly available. This review addresses the concept of emulsomal drug delivery system, summarizes the success of emulsomes for the delivery of small molecules, and special attention has been paid to its formulation design, advantages, biopharmaceutical aspects,
stability aspects, and various aspects related to drug delivery including future aspects.
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Attribution-Noncommercial 4.0 International License [CC BY-NC 4.0], which requires that reusers give credit to the creator. It allows reusers to distribute, remix, adapt, and build upon the material in any medium or format, for noncommercial purposes only.
Arien A, Dupuy B. Encapsulation of calcitonin in liposomes depends in
the vesicle preparation method. J Microencapsul 1997;14:753-60.
Bangham AD, Standish MM, Watkins JC. Diffusion of univalent ions
across the lamellae of swollen phospholipids. J Mol Biol 1965;13:238-52.
Schreier H, Bouwstra J. Liposomes and niosomes as topical drug carriers:Dermal and transdermal drug delivery. J Control Release 1994;30:1-15.
Humberstone AJ, Charman WN. Lipid-based vehicles for the oral delivery of poorly water soluble drugs. Adv Drug Deliv Rev 1997;25:103-28
Kim S. Liposomes as carriers of cancer chemotherapy and future aspects.Drugs 1993;46:618-38.
Zhu L, Huo Z, Wang L, Tong X, Xiao Y, Ni K. Targeted delivery
of methotrexate to skeletal muscular tissue by thermosensitive
magnetoliposomes. Int J Pharm 2009;370:136-43.
Barber R, Shek P. Liposomes as a topical ocular drug delivery system.
In: Rolland A, editor. Pharmaceutical Particulate Carriers. New York:
Marcel Dekker; 1993. p. 1-20.
Singh SK, Rajera R, Nagpal K, Mishra DN. Niosomes: A controlled and
novel drug delivery system. Biol Pharm Bull 2011;34:945-53.
Vyas SP, Subhedar R, Jain S. Development and characterization of
emulsomes for sustained and targeted delivery of an antiviral agent
to liver. J Pharm Pharmacol 2006;58:321-6.
Paliwal R, Paliwal SR, Mishra N, Mehta A, Vyas SP. Engineered
chylomicron mimicking carrier emulsome for lymph targeted oral
delivery of methotrexat. Int J Pharm 2009;380:181-8.
VanCott TC, Kaminski RW, Mascola JR, Kalyanaraman VS, Wassef NM,
Alving CR, et al. HIV-1 neutralizing antibodies in the genital and
respiratory tracts of mice intranasally immunized with oligomeric
gp160. J Immunol 1998;160:2000-12.
Schwarz C, Mehnert W, Lucks JS, Muller RH. Solid lipid nanoparticles
(SLNs) for controlled drug delivery: I. Production, characterization and
sterilization. J Control Release 1994;30:83-96.
Vyas SP, Gupta S, Dube A. Antileishmanial efficacy of amphotericin b
bearing emulsomes against experimental visceral leishmaniasis. J Drug
Gupta S, Vyas SP. Development and characterization of Amphotericin
B bearing emulsomes for passive and active macrophage targeting.
J Drug Target 2006;15:206-17.
Weinstock PH, Bisgaier CL, Hayek T, Aalto-Setala K, Sehayek E,
Sheiffele P, et al. Decreased HDL choesterol levels but normal lipid
absorption, growth and feeding behavior in apolipoprotein a-iv
knockout mice. J Lipid Res 1997;38:1782-94.
Ziv E, Bendayan M. Intestinal absorption of peptides through the
enterocytes. Microsc Res Tech 2000;49:346-52.
Raybould HE. Nutrient tasting and signaling mechanisms in the gut. I.
Sensing of lipid by the intestinal mucosa. Am J Physiol 1999;277:G751-5.
Welling PG. Influence of food and diet on gastrointestinal drug
absorption: A review. J Pharmacokinet Biopharm 1977;5:292-334.
Porter CJH, Trevaskis NL, Charman WN. Lipids and lipid-based
formulations: Optimizing the oral delivery of lipophilic drugs. Nat Rev
Drug Discov 2007;6:231-48.
Wagnera D, Spahn-Langguthb H, Hanafyb A, Koggela A, Langgutha P.
Intestinal drug efflux: Formulation and food effects. Adv Drug Deliv
Rev 2001;50(supply 1):S13-31.
Brocks DR, Betageri GV. Enhanced oral absorption of halofantrine
enantiomers after encapsulation in a proliposomal formulation. J Pharm
Hauss DJ. Oral lipid based formulations. Adv Drug Deliv Rev
Hofmann AF, Borgstrom B. The intraluminal phase of fat digestion
in man: The lipid content of the micellar and oil phases of intestinal
content obtained during fat digestion and absorption. J Clin Invest
Gursoy RN, Benita S. Self-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDS)
for improved oral delivery of lipophilic drugs. Biomed Pharmacother
Pouton CW. Formulation of poorly water-soluble drugs for oral
administration: Physicochemical and physiological issues and the lipid
formulation classification system. Eur J Pharm Sci 2006;29:278-87.
Chambin O, Jannin V. Interest of multifunctional lipid excipients: Case
of Gelucire 44/14. Drug Dev Ind Pharm 2005;31:527-34.
Gupta KS, Nappinnai M, Gupta VRM. Formulation and evaluation of
topical meloxicam niosomal gel. Int J Biopharm 2010;1:7-13.
Kulthe VV, Chaudhari PD. Solubility enhancement of etoricoxib by
solid dispersions prepared by spray drying technique. Int J Pharm Res
Vilhemsen T, Eliasen H, Schaefer T. Effect of a melt agglomeration
process on agglomerates containing solid dispersions. Int J Pharma
Solid Fat Nanoemulsions As Drug Delivery Vehicles-Patent 5576016.
Available from: http://www.docstoc.com/docs/48874511/Solid-Fat-
Banerjee A, Roychoudhury J, Ali N. Stearylamine-bearing cationic
liposomes kill leishmania parasites through surface exposed
negatively charged phosphatidylserine. J Antimicrob Chemother
Sudhamani T, Priyadarisini N, Radhakrishna. Proniosomesâ€“A promising
drug carriers. Int J PharmTech Res 2010;2:1446-54.
Sek L, Porter CJH, Charman WN. Characterisation and quantification of
medium chain and long chain triglycerides and their in-vitro digestion
products, by HPTLC coupled with in situ densitometric analysis. J Pharm
Biomed Anal 2001;25:651-61.
Mujoriya R, Bodla RB, Dhamande K, Singh D, Patle L. Niosomal drug
delivery system: The magic bullet. JAPS 2011;1:20-3.
Ruckmani K, Sankar V. Formulation and optimization of zidovudine
niosomes. AAPS PharmSciTech 2010;11:1119-27.
Venkatesan N, Vyas SP. Polysaccharide coated liposomes for oral
immunization: Development and characterization. Int J Pharm
Hofland HEJ, Boustra JA, Verhoef JC, Buckton G, Chowdry BZ, Ponec M,
et al. Safety aspects of non-ionic surfactant vesicles a toxicity study
related to the physicochemical characteristics of non-ionic surfactants.
J Pharm Pharmacol 1992;44:287-94.
Hood E, Gonzalez M, Plaas A, Strom J, VanAuker M. Immunotargeting
of nonionic surfactant vesicles to inflammation. Int J Pharm
Azeem A, Anwer MK, Talegaonkar S. Niosomes in sustained and targeted
drug delivery: Some recent advances. J Drug Target 2009;17:671-89.
Barry BW. Novel mechanisms and devices to enable successful
transdermal drug delivery. Eur J Pharm Sci 2001;14:101-14.
Devaraj GN, Parakh SR, Devraj R, Apte SS, Rao BR, Rambhau D. Release
studies on niosomes containing fatty alcohols as bilayer stabilizers
instead of cholesterol. J Colloid Interface Sci 2002;251:360-5.
Kirby C, Clarke J, Gregoriadis G. Effect of cholesterol content of small
unilamellar liposomes on their stability in vivo and in vitro. Biochem J
Harasym TO, Cullis PR, Bally MB. Intratumor distribution of
doxorubicin following I.V. Administration of drug encapsulated in
egg phosphatidylcholine cholesterol liposomes. Cancer Chemother
Harder T, Simons K. Caveolae, digs, and the dynamics of sphingo-lipid
cholesterol microdomains. Curr Opin Cell Biol 1997;9:534-42.
Papahadjopoulos D, Cowden M, Kimelberg H. Role of cholesterol
in membranes, effects on phospholipidprotein interactions,
membrane permeability and enzymatic activity. Biochim Biophys
Snjezana S. PLGA nanoparticles prepared by nanoprecipitation: Drug
loading and release studies of water soluble drug. J Control Release
Ibrahim MMA, Sammour OA, Hammad MA, Megrab NA. In vitro
evaluation of proniosomes gel as A drug carrier for flurbiprofen. AAPS
Fang JY, Hong CT, Chiu WT, Wang YY. Effect of liposomes and niosomes
on skin permeation of enoxacin. Int J Pharm 2001;219:61-72.
Dipali SR, Kulkarni SB, Betageri GV. Comparative study of separation of
non-encapsulated drug from unilamellar liposomes by various methods.
J Pharm Pharmacol 1996;48:1112-5.
Ljeoma FU, Vyas SP. Non-ionic surfactant based vesicles in drug delivery.
Int J Pharm 1998;172:33-70.
Szoka F, Papahadjopoulos D. Procedure for preparation of liposomes
with large internal aqueous space and high capture by reverse-phase
evaporation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1978;75:4194-8.
Vemuri S, Rhodes CT. Preparation and characterization of liposomes as
therapeutic delivery systems: A review. Pharm Acta Helv 1995;70:95-111.
Balasubramaniam A, Kumar VA, Palliai KS. Formulation and in-vivo
evaluation of niosomes encapsulated daunorubicin hydrochloride.
Drug Dev Ind Pharm 2002;28:1181-93.
Hope MJ, Bally MB, Webb G, Cullis P. Production of large unilamellar
vesicles by rapid extrusion procedure: Characterization of size
distribution, trapped volume, and ability to maintain a membrane
potential. Biochim Biophys Acta 1985;812:55-65.
Batzri S, Korn ED. Single bilayer liposomes prepared without sonication.
Biochim Biophys Acta 1973;298:1015-9.
Fry DW, White JC, Goldman ID. Rapid separation of low molecular
weight solutes from liposomes without dilution. Anal Biochem
Dayan N, Touitou E. Carriers for skin delivery of Trihexyphenidyl HCl:
Ethosomes vs. Liposomes. Biomaterials 2000;21:1879-85.
Sugarman SM, Zou YY, Wasan K, Poirot K, Kumi R, Reddy S, et al. Lipid-
complexed camptothecin: Formulation and initial biodistribution and
anti-tumor activity studies. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 1996;37:531-8.
Vemuri S, Yu C, Wangsatorntanakun V, Roosdorp N. Large-scale
production of liposomes by Microfluidizer. Drug Dev Ind Pharm
Kremer JM, Esker MW, Pathmamanoharan C, Wiersema PH. Vesicles
of variable diameter prepared by a modified injection method.
Lundberg BB. Biologically active comptothecin derivatives for
incorporation into liposomes bilayers and lipid emulsion. Anticancer
Drug Des 1988;13:453-61.
Pons M, Foradada M, Estelrich J. Liposomes obtained by the ethanol
injection method. Int J Pharm 1993;95:51-6.
Stano P, Bufali S, Pisano C, Bucci F, Barbarino M, Santaniello M, et al. Novel
camptothecin analogue (Gimatecan)-containing liposomes prepared by
the ethanol injection method. J Liposome Res 2004;14:87- 09.
Campbell MJ. Lipofection reagents prepared by simple ethanol injection
technique. Biotechniques 1995;18:1027-32.
Domazou A, Luisi PL. Size distribution of spontaneously formed
liposomes by the alcohol injection method. J Liposome Res
Kagawa Y, Racker E. Partial resolution of the enzymes catalyzing
oxidative phosphorylation. J Biol Chem 1971;246:5477-87.
Milsmann MHW, Schwendner RA, Weder H. The preparation of large
single bilayer liposomes by a fast and controlled dialysis. Biochim
Biophys Acta 1978;512:147-55.
Enoch HAG. Strittmatter P. Formation and properties of 1000 A
diameter, single-bilayer phospholipid vesicles. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A
Porter CJH, Charman WN. Uptake of drugs into the intestinal lymphatics
after oral administration. Adv Drug Deliv Rev 1997;25:71-89.
Dintaman JM, Silverman JA. Inhibition of P-glycoprotein by Dalpha-
tocopheryl Polyethylene Glycol 1000 Succinate (TPGS). Pharm Res
Nerurkar MM, Burton PS, Borchardt RT. The use of Surfactants to
Enhance the Permeability of Peptides Through Caco-2 Cells by Inhibition
of An Apically Polarized Efflux System. Pharm Res 1996;3:528-34.
Aungst BJ. Intestinal permeation enhancers. J Pharm Sci 2000;
Muranishi S. Absorption enhancers. Crit Rev Ther Drug Carrier Syst
Erion MD, Van Poelje PD, Mackenna DA, Colby TJ, Montag AC,
Fujitaki JM, et al. Liver-targeted drug delivery using hepdirect prodrugs.
J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2005;312:554-60.
Banerjee G, Nandi G, Mahato SB, Pakrashi A, Basu MK. Drug delivery
system: Targeting of pentamidines to specific sites using sugar-grafted
liposomes. J Antimicrob Chemother 1996;38:145-50.
Moghbel A, Zand Moghaddam A, Rezaee S, Pedram M. High performance
liquid chromatography determination of methotrexate in plasma. Iran
J Pharm Res 2003;2:149-52.
Goldsmith DR, Perry CM. Amphotericin B lipid complex: In visceral
leishmaniasis. Drugs 2004;64:1905-11.
Kole L, Sakar K, Mahato SB, Das PK. Neoglycoprotein conjugated
liposomes as macrophage specific drug carrier in the therapy of
leishmaniasis. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1994;200:351-8.
Sanchez-Brunete JA, Dea MA, Rama S, Bolas F, Alunda JM, Raposo R, et al.
Treatment of experimental visceral leishmaniasis with amphotericin
B in stable albumin microspheres. Antimicrob Agents Chemother
Lowell GH, Kaminski RW, VanCott TC, Slike B, Kersey K, Zawoznik E,
et al. Proteosomes, emulsomes, and cholera Toxin B Improve nasal
immunogenicity of human immunodeficiency virus Gp160 in mice:
Induction of serum, intestinal, vaginal, and Lung IgA and IgG. J Infect