Effect of alcohols and enhancers on permeation enhancement of ketorolac

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Amrish Chandra
Pramod Kumar Sharma
Raghuveer Irchhiaya


A reservoir-type transdermal patch for the delivery of ketorolac was studied. The low permeability of the skin is the
rate-limiting step for delivery of most of the drugs. Studies were carried out to investigate the effect of pH, alcohols,
and chemical permeation enhancers on the in vitro permeation of ketorolac. The reservoir core of the transdermal patch
was filled with the hydrogel of a nonionic polymer, methocel K15M (hydroxyl propyl methylcellulose, HPMC) formulated
at an optimized pH of 5.4. Enhanced in vitro permeation was achieved after the incorporation of the alcohols. Higher
enhancement was produced by short-chain alcohols like ethanol and isopropyl alcohol (IPA). Propylene glycol (PG) along
with other alcohols, viz. n-propanol, n-butanol, and n-pentanol, lagged behind. An exponential rise in permeation was
observed in flux with an increase in the concentration of IPA. At 25% w/w IPA concentration, the observed ketorolac
flux was 18.04 mg/cm2/h. Terpene containing eucalyptus oil was studied to determine its permeation enhancement
capability. The increase in the concentration of eucalyptus oil enhanced the drug permeation and a maximum flux of
66.38 and 90.56 mg/cm2/h was achieved at 10 and 15% w/w concentrations. The anti-inflammatory potential of the
transdermal formulation was evaluated on a carrageenan-induced paw edema model, with 41.67% inhibition at 6 h.
The skin irritation potential was evaluated by the Drazie test and the formulations prepared were found to be safe. The
reservoir-type transdermal patch for the delivery of ketorolac appeared to be feasible for delivering ketorolac across
the skin.


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Chandra, A., Sharma, P. K., & Irchhiaya, R. (2014). Effect of alcohols and enhancers on permeation enhancement of ketorolac. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutics (AJP), 3(1). https://doi.org/10.22377/ajp.v3i1.239


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