Extended release matrix tablets of Stavudine: Formulation and in vitro evaluation

Main Article Content

M Saravanakumar
N Venkateswaramurthy
D Dhachinamoorthi
P Perumal


During the past two decades, there has been a steady increase in both the number of antiretroviral medications and the number of possible regimens available to manage human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). But still, regimen fails due to some reasons such as toxicity, adverse effects, and consequent difficulties with patient adherence. Stavudine is the Food and Drug Administration approved drug for clinical use for the treatment of HIV infection, AIDS, and AIDS related conditions, either alone or in combination with other antiviral agents. The side effects of Stavudine are dose dependent and a reduction of the total administered dose reduces the severity of the toxicity. To reduce the frequency of administration and to improve patient compliance, a once daily sustained release formulation of Stavudine is desirable. Hence, in the present work, an attempt has been made to develop once daily sustained release matrix tablets of Stavudine using putative hydrophilic matrix materials such as hydroxyl propyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) K4M and
Carbopol 974P.The prepared extended release tablets were then evaluated for various physical tests like diameter, thickness, weight variation, hardness, friability, and drug content uniformity.The results of all these tests were found to be satisfactory. Formulation F9 extended the drug release till the end of 24 hours and showed higher r values for zero order plot, indicating that drug release followed zero order kinetics. This finding reveals that above a particular concentration, HPMC K4M and Carbopol 974P are capable of providing almost zero order drug release.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
Saravanakumar, M., Venkateswaramurthy, N., Dhachinamoorthi, D., & Perumal, P. (2014). Extended release matrix tablets of Stavudine: Formulation and in vitro evaluation. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutics (AJP), 4(3). https://doi.org/10.22377/ajp.v4i3.222


Indurwade NH, Rajyaguru TH, Nakhat PD. Novel approach fast dissolving

tablets. Indian drugs 2002;39:405-9.

Pradhan R, Budhathoki U, Thapa P. Formulation of once a day controlled

release tablet of indomethacin based on HPMC mannitol. Kathmandu:

Kathmandu University Science, Eng Tech 2008. p. 55-67.

Devi KV, Pai RS. Antiretroviral need for an effective drug delivery. Indian

J Pharm Sci 2006;68:1-6.

Samanta AK, Kumar A, Dora J, Choudhury SD, Goswami SK. Dosage form

design on controlled release delivery system of Stavudine. Pharmbit


Reddy KR, Mutalik S, Reddy S. Once daily sustained release matrix

tablets of nicorandil formulation and in vitro evaluation. AAPS Pharm

Sci Tech 2003;4:1-9.

Kumar M T. Effect of viscosity of polymer and drug solubility on in vitro

release. Indian J Pharm Sci 2005;67:414-21.

Fu XC. Effects of physiochemical properties of drug and polymer

concentration. J Control Release 2004;95:209-16.

Lachman L, Lieberman HA. Pharmaceutical dosage forms. Tablets


Banker GS, Anderson NR. In: Lachman L, Liberman HA, Kanig JL, editors.The theory and Practice of industrial pharmacy. 3rd ed. Mumbai:

Varghese Publishing House; 1987. p. 297.

Indian Pharmacopoeia.Delhi: The Controller of Publications; 1996.

p. A-80.

Perez-Marcos B, Ford JL, Amstrong DJ, Elliott PE, Rostron C, Hogan JE.

Release of propranolol hydrochloride from matrix tablets containing

hydroxyl propyl methyl cellulose K4M and carbopol 974. Int J Pharm


Helboe P. The elaboration and application of the ICH guideline

on Testing of light stability of tablets. Acta Pharm Suec 1998;17: